Introduction

Kalahari Key Mineral Exploration Company (Pty) Ltd, registered in Botswana, is a mineral exploration and geological consultancy company that was established by Roger Key, Andy Moore, Simon Bate and Rick Bonner in November 2014.

In November 2016 the company acquired two mineral exploration licences (PL310/2016 and PL311/2016) from the Botswana Government. The licences cover the eastern and central parts of a shear/feeder zone through the centre of the Bushveld-related Molopo Farms Complex in southern Botswana. A third licence (PL202/2018) was acquired in early 2018 immediately to the south of PL311/2018.

The target mineralization is Ni-PGE in the shear/ feeder zone. Re-processing and re-interpretation of existing high-resolution airborne magnetic data and regional gravity data was initially used to identify target areas. Selected core from previous exploration programmes has also been examined to better understand the geology of the Complex. Follow-up ground magnetic and gravity surveying over selected target areas was followed by soil sampling to identify potential drill sites.

Blenheim Natural Resources (later renamed as TSI) acquired a 20 percent share of KKME in September 2017. In 2018, TSI acquired further shares, as did three other UK companies and a number of private investors.

Towards the end of 2018, NRGTM was contracted to complete a high-resolution airborne magnetic and EM survey over the feeder/shear zone using their XciteTM methodology. The preliminary analysis of the new geophysical data by Cas Lotter, helped by Roger Key and Andy Moore identified 17 conductor targets within the feeder/shear zone.

Xcite system

Board Members

Card image cap
Dr Roger Marcus KEY

In 1972 Roger completed his PhD in Geology with a University of Liverpool scholarship and spent the next 40 years as a mapping geologist throughout Africa (Botswana, Kenya, Mauritania, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique Nigeria and Zambia) and for six years in the Scottish Highlands. Since then he has been a consultant geologist on mineral exploration projects in Botswana, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique and Tanzania. He has also been an External Examiner for Gottenberg University, Pretoria University and Trinity College, Dublin. Roger received the Distinguished Service Medal (Botswana Government) -awarded in 1998 for services to the Botswana Geological Survey Department, and an MBE in 1999.

Card image cap
Mr David Craig OVADIA

David Ovadia studied geology and physics at the University of Liverpool and carried out postgraduate research at the University of Birmingham. He has held various Chief Executive and Chairman roles, with a proven record of achievement in both public and private sectors. He was a Director of Blenheim Natural Resources plc, a London AIM listed company investing in the global natural resources sector, CEO of Avenco Ltd and Chairman of South East African Mining (SEAM) Ltd, both junior explorers for gold and other minerals in Africa. He served as a director of Spectrum General Partner Ltd., an investor in science spin-out companies, and was previously the Director of International at the British Geological Survey, from where he set up and was the founder Managing Director, and later Chairman, of IGS (International Geoscience Services) Ltd. He was awarded the MBE in 2010 for services to science and has carried out consultancies for the World Bank and several EU projects.

Card image cap
Dr Andrew Edward MOORE

Andy Moore was a lecturer in Geology at the University of the Western Cape (Cape Town, South Africa) from 1971 – 1979, before joining the Falconbridge diamond exploration team in Botswana. Responsibilities with Falconbridge included managing the sampling project which led to the discovery of the diamond-bearing Gope kimberlite in the Central Kalahari region of Botswana. Thereafter, he was responsible for setting up private diamond exploration companies in Botswana and Zimbabwe, and initiating and managing diamond exploration programmes in both countries. A number of virgin kimberlite clusters were discovered in Zimbabwe. He was subsequently a founder director of Tsodilo Resources Ltd., listed on the Toronto Venture Exchange (TSX-V: TSD), responsible for initiating and managing diamond exploration programmes in the Kalahari region of northwest Botswana, where a number of new kimberlites were discovered. He subsequently joined Pan African Mining, initially managing the company’s diamond exploration programmes in Madagascar and the Kalahari region of NW Botswana and NE Namibia, and subsequently as part of a team evaluating a Palaeo-Proterozoic gold placer target in Ghana. He is a founder member of Kalahari Key Mineral Explorations (Pty.) Ltd.

Card image cap
Ms Maggie Dorcas NYAMUPEPEMA

Ms Maggie Dorcas Nyamupepema is a member of Botswana Institute of Chartered Accountants (BICA) since 2008. She holds a Masters in Business Administration (MBA) Degree from the University of Botswana and a Bachelors in Business Administration (BBA) from Solusi University, Zimbabwe. Since 2016, she has worked in different companies in Botswana with positions of Financial Manager, Financial Accountant, Business Operations Manager and Company Secretary. She is very conversant with the Botswana Company Law and Tax Law and operates and owns her own business consultancy services company in Botswana.

Card image cap
Mr Christopher John ELLS

Chris is a qualified Chartered Accountant with a successful career in the structured finance industry. Chris qualified with KPMG London (then Peat Marwick) in the early 1970s before emigrating to Australia and being appointed Group Manager in their Sydney office after running the PM office in the pacific tax haven of New Hebrides (now Vanuatu). In 1979, Chris co-founded Allco Finance Group in Sydney, set up its Melbourne office in 1983 and its London office in 1986. During his career in structured finance, Chris completed transactions in excess of $5bn for clients including British Aerospace, Qantas and Ansett. Chris’ experience in the natural resources sector includes his role as Chairman of Aim listed mining investment company, Blenheim Natural Resources Plc until March 2018 and as a director of South East African Mining, an exploration company focused on gold exploration project in Malawi. In 2007, Chris co-founded Jacoma Estates Limited, the UK holding company of a group which owns and operates plantations in Northern Malawi growing macadamia, chillies and paprika.

Card image cap
Mr Christian SCHAFFALITZKY DE MUCKADELL

Christian Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, EurGeol, PGeo, FIMMM, CEng, has extensive corporate experience as an executive and independent director of public companies on both AIM and the London Stock Exchange’s Main Market, as well as the Dublin, Moscow and Toronto Stock Exchanges. Christian Schaffalitzky is currently Chairman of AIM quoted Kibo Mining Plc and Eurasia Mining Plc and a non-executive Director of Two Shields Investments plc and NEX quoted MetalNRG Plc. With over 40 years’ experience in minerals exploration, Christian Schaffalitzky was a founder of CSA Global, the international mining consulting group and of Ivernia West Plc, where he led the exploration, discovery and development of the Lisheen zinc deposit in Ireland, as he did with the Shaimerden zinc deposit in Kazakhstan for Ennex International.

Card image cap
Mr Simon John BATE

Simon Bate is an exploration geophysicist with more than 25 years of experience in the minerals and groundwater industries. He has experience in exploration and project management in remote locations and on international projects. His other areas of experience include geotechnical and environmental evaluations. Conversant with all aspects of airborne and ground geophysical techniques for precious, base and industrial minerals. Specialization areas include potential methods (magnetics and gravity), electrical (IP/resistivity) techniques and electromagnetic methods.

Our Services

Mineral Exploration including Geochemical and Geophysical Surveys

Roger Key has led regional stream sediment geochemical mapping programmes in Mozambique, Nigeria and Zambia. These have been for exploration

Andy Moore is an acknowledged kimberlite exploration expert throughout southern Africa. He has led exploration programmes focusing on finding indicator mineral anomalies

Simon Bate is an exploration geophysicist with more than 25 years of experience in the minerals and groundwater industries. He has experience in exploration

Roger, Andy and Simon have all successfully planned, organised and led mineral exploration programmes.

Geological Mapping

Over the last 40 years, Roger Key has completed geological mapping projects in Botswana, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritania, Mozambique, the Scottish Highlands, Tanzania and Zambia. The mapping has varied from regional mapping projects to produce geological maps at scales of 1:100,000 to 1:250,000 as well as more detailed maps of small areas at scales of less than 1:5,000 up to 1:50,000. The mapped geology has varied from Precambrian crystalline rocks with complex structures, Precambrian and Phanerozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences to Cenozoic superficial deposits. All the maps and all with accompanying technical reports have been peer-reviewed and completed on time.

Training

Roger, Andy and Simon have over 100 years experience in training newly qualified African geoscientists on a one-to-one basis in fieldwork related to geological mapping, mineral exploration and geophysics respectively. They have given talks at international geoscientific conferences and published peer-reviewed papers in international journals and thus all have international reputations.

Why Botswana?

  • Botswana is the most attractive economy for investments flowing into the African continent. This is according to the latest Africa Investment Index 2016 (http://APO.af/sUtRNQ) by Quantum Global’s (www.QuantumGlobalGroup.com) independent research arm, Quantum Global Research Lab. According to the Index, Botswana scores highly based on a range of factors that include improved credit rating, current account ratio, import cover and ease of doing business.
  • Excellent existing infrastructure to support our licence areas, including proximity of proposed transport Kalahari railway.
  • Superb climate and landscape for mining; available labour force used to mining open pit targets.
  • Attractive geology and mineralization - kaapvaal craton – extension of the bushveld complex the main source of global pt with 80% of world’s pt production (next major supplier is russia with 13%).
  • International companies undertaking mineral exploration in the area.
  • New model for the mineralization based on existing geological data, drillhole data, and re-interpretation, reprocessing of high resolution airborne magentic data and gravity data.
  • Our high-resolution helicopter-supported EM and magnetic survey provides data to support our exploration model.

Molopo Farms Project

Update Dec 2018

Kalahari Key Mineral Exploration Company (Pty) Ltd (“KKME” or “the Company”) is pleased to announce the successful completion of a helicopter survey covering large parts of its licenced areas in the Molopo Farms area of southern Botswana.

The survey was carried out by New Resolution Geophysics (NRG™) using its Xcite™ system, and was completed ahead of schedule and within budget. KKME directors Dr Roger Key and Dr Andy Moore, working with consultant geophysicist Cas Lotter, have subsequently produced a first-pass detailed interpretation of the acquired data, which identifies up to 17 potential targets for mineralization (see Figure 1). They are in the major ENE-WSW feeder/shear zone through the centre of the Molopo Farms Complex (MFC). In this zone, the targets are mostly on shears or intersecting shears, and/or deflections in shears, coinciding with geologically permissive locations. Several of the eastern targets are in the ‘pan handle’ to the MFC where its igneous rocks intersect lower Transvaal Supergroup strata that includes limestones, and close to the contact with a later granite (a probable heat source for mineralization). The eastern targets may reflect primary (layered) mineralization in the feeder zone in an area where the originally overlying MFC lopolith has been removed by erosion.

Figure 1
Figure 1: map of the main targets (shown as black symbols; two are coincident)

Whilst the Company is not claiming that all 17 identified targets will prove to represent significant mineralization, their geophysical signatures and structural setting are consistent with the exploration model, which is considered to be most encouraging. A full report putting the 17 targets into priority order will be delivered to the Company by mid-December.

David Ovadia, former Head of International at the British Geological Survey and now a non-executive director of KKME said “The results of this survey are excellent and fully justify the Board’s decision to commission the work. Many of the targets appear to be of a suitable size and depth to be viable for mining and the Company will now build on this success to plan the next phases of development.”

Phase 1 of the Interpretation report of our airborne geophysics has been received and the Phase 2 report with plate modelling of the 10 best targets to produce 3D images will be delivered in January 2019.

The Molopo Farms Complex (MFC) Report

All past exploration of the Molopo Farms Complex (MFC) has focused on finding Pt Group mineralization similar to the Merensky Reef mineralization in the contemporaneous Bushveld Complex of South Africa. This exploration did locate Pt mineralization in individual drillholes, but which was found to be laterally discontinuous (e.g. Reichhardt, 1994). Our examination of drill core shows that the MFC is intensely deformed by both ductile and brittle structures to explain the lateral discontinuity, both of mineralization and any lithological layering. The deformation is accompanied by intense alteration of primary minerals, notably the replacement of olivine by serpentine and magnetite. The potential for major Ni mineralization was ignored despite anomalous showings of this metal in soils, borehole water and drill core analyses. For example, up to 0.5m thick bands of sulphide mineralization were recorded from the drill core MF38 (Gould et al., 1987).

The primary target for Kalahari Key Mineral Exploration Company (Pty) Ltd (KKME) is Ni-Pt mineralization in the geophysically delineated, major ENE-WSW Jwaneng-Makopong Shear/Feeder Zone through the centre of the MFC. A second type of target is massive or disseminated Ni-sulphide deposits at the base of, or within the ultramafic zone of the MFC (such as zones of mineralisation already outlined at Tubane and Keng). The Jwaneng-Makopong Shear Zone (previously named the Kgomodikae Lineament) is called the Murchison Lineament when traced into South Africa and cuts across the Bushveld Igneous Complex.

Major nickel deposits occur in major structural conduits that link into the roots of large igneous provinces near the edges of old cratons i.e. in similar settings to the shear/feeder zone of the MFC. According to models developed for the genesis of magmatic Ni-Cu ± PGE sulphide deposits in Voisey’s Bay, Labrador, at Noril'sk , Noril'sk II , Kharaelakh , NW Talnakh , and NE Talnakh Intrusions of the Noril'sk Region of Russia; the Kalatongke deposit in NW China; and Babel-Nebo in Western Australia., the feeder conduit is regarded as a particularly favourable site for mineralisation (Evans-Lamswood et al., 2000; Naldrett, 1999; Naldrett, 2007). Kaavera et al. (2018) also argued that ‘the Molopo Farms Complex is a better target for Cu-Ni sulphide mineralization.' They presented a possible sulphide genesis model in relation to the prominent occurrence of magmatic pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite assemblage in their studied rocks, trace amounts of PGM associated with sulphides in the marginal facies norite, and the alteration features associated with sulphides.

The rocks studied by Kaavera et al. (2018) host a prominent sulphide assemblage of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite, with minor sphalerite and pyrite. The pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite assemblage, seen in the marginal facies norite and medium-grained pyroxenite from drill core MF38, and the gabbronorite from drill core MF9, is characteristic of that found in magmatic sulphide ores. The association of sphalerite with the pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite assemblage in the medium-grained pyroxenite is reported previously in the Volspruit Ni-PGE project in the south of the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex (Tanner et al., 2017). In terms of the prominence of sulphides, and the occurrence of a variety of floor/country rocks, including sedimentary rocks of the Transvaal Supergroup and pre-Transvaal basement granitoids, the sulphide-bearing Molopo Farms Complex rocks are more comparable to those occurring in the northern limb (Platreef) of the Bushveld Complex.

Mafic and ultramafic rocks were first recorded in the last century in water shafts and water bores sunk along the northern zone of the MFC. The MFC was recognised in a 1962 government aerial magnetic survey but its significance was not appreciated at that time, mainly due to the almost complete absence of surface rock exposure. In the early 1970s, exploration for chrysotile asbestos in the small exposures of ultramafic rocks near Keng Pan in the north revealed skarn type sulphide mineralization at the base of the intrusive.

The first national airborne magnetic survey (with 1.6km line-spaced data) of Botswana in the 1970s defined the full extent of the MFC (Reeves, 1978). This led to a major Botswana Geological Survey and British Geological Survey investigation of the MFC in the early 1980s. Gould et al. (1987) provide an account of their detailed geological, geochemical, geophysical and drilling investigations. Their 1:250,000 geological map of the complex formed the framework for mineral exploration from the 1980s until the early 2000s by the private sector (including Gold Fields Botswana Pty Limited, Molopo (Botswana) Pty Ltd and Tau Mining). This work focused on finding PGE mineralization similar to that in the contemporaneous BIC found several hundred kilometres to the east in South Africa. However, nickel mineralization was revealed including a wide zone of up to 27 metres of low-grade copper-nickel averaging approximately 0.1%. Later, drilling in 1991 recorded narrow nickel arsenide mineralization of up to 14.6% nickel over 0.3 metres in this same area.

In the 1990s the Botswana Government commissioned a second, much-higher resolution national airborne magnetic survey (250m line spacing). This provided much greater detail on the internal geology of the MFC and importantly confirmed the presence of the Jwaneng-Makopong Shear/Feeder Zone. An interpretation of the new geophysics and a re-examination of all the exploration and water borehole core and chip samples led to the production of new 1:125,000 and 1:250,000 geological maps of the MFC and surrounding Archaean and Proterozoic rocks that form the western part of the Kaapvaal Craton (maps prepared by Key and McGeorge for the Botswana Geological Survey through Wellfield Consulting Services, 2004). Walker et al. (2010) provide an overview of the MFC’s geology and identified the shear/feeder zones as targets for Ni-PGE mineralization. Discovery Metals took out licences in southern Botswana for manganese mineralization that included licences over the shear/feeder zone geophysical (gravity and magnetic) anomaly. However, their exploration focused away from the Molopo Farms Complex and all their licences were relinquished in 2016. Kalahari Key Mineral Exploration acquired their licences over the shear/feeder zone at the end of 2016.

The Molopo Farms Complex (MFC) is a layered ultramafic-mafic intrusion, straddling the southern border of Botswana with S Africa, that is part of a major magmatic and thermal event dated between about 2.0 and 2.1 Ga, referred to as the Bushveld Large Igneous Province. This Province comprises large granitic and ultramafic/mafic intrusions (including the Bushveld Complex) and less common extrusive volcanic complexes into/onto the Kalahari and Congo Cratons (e.g. Carney et al., 1994; Key and Ayres, 2000; Singletary et al., 2003). The MFC constitutes the largest of the different syn-Bushveld intrusions. The associated thermal anomaly is recorded in widespread rock and mineral ages of about 2000 Ma in Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean rocks of Southern Africa, including the Limpopo Belt (van Breemen and Dodson, 1972; Hanson, 2003). The MFC has been dated at 2044 ± 24 Ma (Coetzee and Kruger, 1989), which is a similar age to other Palaeoproterozoic intrusions and lavas of Southern Botswana such as the Moshaneng Complex (Key and Ayres, 2000; Hanson, 2003). The high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios obtained from MFC rocks (ultramafic sequence: 0.703–0.705; mafic sequence: 0.705–0.709) and variation across the stratigraphy, e.g., sudden increase to 0.707, some 500m below the base of the mafic sequence (Gould et al., 1987; Reichhardt, 1994) is comparable to that obtained from the Bushveld Complex (Kruger, 1994).

The MFC underlies an area of about 13,000 km2 of southernmost Botswana and adjacent parts of S Africa across the Molopo River (Gabrielli, 2003; Prinsloo, 1994). For the most part, the MFC is completely unexposed with a cover of Kalahari beds that varies in thickness: commonly exceeding 100m in the W and S (and almost 200m in proto-Molopo palaeo-valleys infilled by Karoo strata (e.g. at Bray; Gould et al., 1987; Key and Ayres, 2000); 25 to 50m over the eastern sector; and thinning to almost nothing locally in the N. Small exposures of asbestos-bearing basic rocks (Lamont, 1950; Wayland, 1951), and ultrabasic rocks recognised in well spoil at Keng Pan (Boocock, 1963) are the only surface showings of the intrusion.

Regional aeromagnetic and reconnaissance gravity surveys conducted from 1962 to 1965 indicated that the basic/ultrabasic rocks might form part of a large complex (Gerrard, 1964). Behr (1987) suggested from the results of exploration drilling for asbestos that the concealed MFC was similar in its lithology, geological setting and probably in its age to the Bushveld Complex found several hundred kilometres to the east. (More specifically the MFC is geologically similar to the Rustenburg Layered Suite - Cawthorn et al., 2008).

The full extent of the MFC in Botswana only became apparent following the interpretation of the results of the Reconnaissance Aeromagnetic survey of Botswana, which was flown in 1976 (Reeves, 1978). Previous geological, geophysical and exploration surveys in Botswana (Behr, 1974 and 1987; Reeves and Hutchins, 1976; Reeves, 1978; Mallick et al., 1981; Kimbell et al., 1984; Meixner and Peart, 1984; Mitchell, 1985; Gould et al., 1987; McGeorge, 1989; 1991; 1992; Reichhardt, 1992; 1994; Sharrock, 1992; Reunion Mining (Botswana), 1998; Chatupa, 1994; Lock, 1996; Cominco, 1998) were hampered by the lack of exposure and the low resolution of the available geophysical data. This meant that only the gross internal configuration of the MFC could be elucidated. The previous studies (notably Gould et al., 1987) deduced, from an interpretation of regional gravity and aeromagnetic data backed up by ground geophysics and drilling, that the MFC is a strongly faulted, large, layered intrusion comprising a lower ultramafic sequence (the Lower Molopo Farms Complex, LMFC) of harzburgites and subordinate pyroxenites with a known thickness exceeding 1300m. This is overlain by a predominantly mafic sequence (the Upper Molopo Farms Complex, UMFC), 1400 to 1500m thick, comprising norites, gabbros and subordinate pyroxenites. In general, the mafic rocks are thinner in the northern sector of the MFC (where they form sheets and dykes in the Transvaal Supergroup country rocks), where the ultramafic rocks are correspondingly thicker. In plan view, the MFC comprises a northern basin-shaped lopolith and a strongly faulted, W-NW-dipping south-eastern unit with rocks of the LMFC discontinuously forming the margins of the northern basin and a wedge-shaped basal unit in the SE. Borehole intersections show that minor intrusions are a common feature of the MFC and its surrounding Transvaal Supergroup country rocks, and range in composition from gabbronorite to melagranodiorite with an isolated granite intrusion (Gould et al., 1987). These minor intrusions are mostly tens to hundreds of metres in thickness. There is a concentration of sub-horizontal mafic sheets in the centre of the northern lopolith. Gould et al. (1987) concluded that some of the minor intrusions are genetically related to the MFC although others are later intrusions.

A second national airborne geophysical survey of Botswana completed in the 1990s (flown by Fugro Airborne Surveys for the Government of Botswana) provided much higher resolution magnetic data to better elucidate the regional geology of southern Botswana and the internal structure of the MFC (Wellfield Consulting Services, 2004). In addition, a considerable amount of new geological information derived from over 300 groundwater and about 150 mineral exploration boreholes became available after the study of Gould et al. (1987). The locations of most boreholes are shown on published Botswana Geological Survey 1:250,000 Mabutsane (33), Kanye (34), Molopo (38), and Lobatse (39) geological maps.

The most recent account of the geology and mineral potential of the MFC is provided by Kaavera et al. (2018). They note that the ultramafic sequence prominently occurs as cyclic units, with each cyclic unit exhibiting a gradual transition from an olivine-rich base to an orthopyroxene-rich top, and with a sharp contact with the overlying cyclic unit (Gould et al., 1987; Reichhardt, 1994). Serpentinization is widespread in the olivine-rich rocks (Gould et al., 1987; Von Gruenewaldt et al., 1989; Reichhardt, 1994). Although cumulate layering is well developed throughout the ultramafic sequence, fine- to medium grained, essentially non-cumulate textured noritic rocks, can occur at the complex margins (Gould et al., 1987). These marginal norites are only reported in drill cores from the northern lobe (Tubane area of PL311/2016).

Integrated interpretation of regional gravity data and new high-resolution airborne magnetic data have constrained the geometry of the Molopo Farms Complex in southern Botswana as a strongly faulted, polyphase intrusion compartmentalised by regional ductile shear zones. Ultramafic rocks were initially emplaced as a semi-coherent lopolithic sheet up to about 4km in thickness cutting across Transvaal Supergroup strata that had already been folded into open east-west trending dome and basin structures with wavelengths of about 4km. Steeply dipping, dyke-like ultramafic bodies adjacent to, and within major shears are inferred to be solidified feeders to the main lopolithic part of the MFC. It is likely that the initial ultramafic sheet was emplaced at a high crustal level (<3km depth) into an attenuated Transvaal Supergroup sequence. This lack of a thick hanging wall sequence is thought to be significant for the emplacement of the succeeding mafic sheets. The ultramafic sheet thermally altered its wall rock and also created a complex fracture system in its hanging wall rocks. Differentiation within the ultramafic sheet produced basal harzburgites overlain by bronzites and possibly mafic sheets. Later mafic/basic sheets and dykes, again fed along shear-controlled, steeply dipping zones, spread into the fracture network created by the initial emplacement of the ultramafic lopolith to form a distinctive spider’s-web pattern on high-resolution airborne magnetic maps. It is proposed that either post- emplacement regional folding or gravitational collapse of the basal ultramafic lopolith produced a major basin with approximate 40km east-west diameter, north of the Jwaneng-Makopong Shear Zone and smaller basin to the southeast. The newly postulated, steeply dipping ultramafic/mafic feeders, as well as the ultramafic lopolith and areas with anomalous nickel values in soils are considered to be prospective for PGE-bearing magmatic nickel-copper sulphide mineralisation. Magmatic rocks dated at about 2.0 Ga are a common feature, not only of the Kaapvaal Craton, but of all the African cratonic blocks south of the Equator.

Almost 3000 million years of sedimentation, igneous activity, metamorphism and deformation are recorded in the rocks that now underlie the Kalahari Formation sediments of southern Botswana (Crockett and Jones, 1975; Gould et al., 1987; Carney et al., 1994; Key et al., 1996; Key and Ayres, 2000; Mapeo et al., 2004). All three major periods of post-Archaean folding have E-W axes to suggest re-activation of older E-W crustal structures throughout the recorded post-Archaean geological record. Previous authors (Tinker et al., 2002; Silver et al., 2004; De Wit and Tinker, 2004) identify a distinct E-W structural grain to the Kaapvaal Craton in southern Botswana based on subcontinental geophysical data. The E-W long axis of the MFC in Botswana may therefore be controlled in part by the grain of the underlying cratonic rocks. Ductile shears and brittle faults, irrespective of their age, mostly trend ENE to NE and WNW to NW. For example, Cullen (1958) concluded that NW trending faulting accompanied folding of Transvaal Supergroup strata prior to emplacement of the MFC.
  • Review of all previous geological, geochemical, geophysical and mineral exploration work undertaken by exploration companies and the Botswana Geological Survey prior to 2016 when two exploration licences were acquired (PL310/2016 and PL311/2016).
  • 3D Modelling of large magnetic bodies within the ENE-WSW Jwaneng-Makopong Shear/Feeder Zone.
  • Examination of drill core stored in the Kang Core Store. This led to a better understanding of the deformation history of the MFC.
  • Petrographic examination of thin sections of MFC core. This again led to a better understanding of the deformation history of the MFC.
  • Soil sampling geochemical programme in the eastern part of the MFC outcrop. This field and laboratory work indicated that conventional soil sampling geochemistry is unlikely to be successful in locating base metal mineralization in the MFC.
  • Limited amount of ground magnetic and gravity surveying over the modelled magnetic bodies.
  • Acquisition of a third exploration licence (PL202/2018)
  • Helicopter-supported high-resolution airborne magnetic and EM survey of the ENE-WSW Jwaneng-Makopong Shear/Feeder Zone using NRGTM XciteTM system.
  • Analysis and interpretation of the new data from the NRGTM XciteTM survey. This has located 17 conductive targets worthy of detailed study.
DATE LICENCE COMPANY
1968 Cyril Hurvitz and JCI
1969 Cyril Hurvitz and JCI
1970 Cyril Hurvitz and JCI
1972 PLs11/72; 12/72 Cyril Hurvitz
1973 PLs11/72; 12/73 Cyril Hurvitz
1974 PL16/74 Cyril Hurvitz
1975 PL16/75 Cyril Hurvitz
1977 PL2/77 Cape Asbestos
1978 PLs28/77, 30/77, 31/77 SAMANCOR BOTSWANA
1982 PL3/81 Ngwaketse Minerals
1985 PLs2/84, 3/84 Gold Fields
1986 PLs 2/84, 3/84; 13/85, 14/85 Gold Fields; Molopo Botswana
1987 PLs 2/84, 3/84; 13/85, 14/86 Gold Fields; Molopo Botswana
1988 PLs 2/84; 13/85, 14/85, 14/87 Gold Fields; Molopo Botswana
1989 PLs 13/85, 14/87, 3/88 Molopo Botswana
1990 PLs 13/85, 14/87, 62/89 Molopo Botswana
1991 PLs 13/85, 14/87, 62/90 Molopo Botswana
1992 PLs 13/85, 14/87, 62/91 Molopo Botswana
1993 PLs 25/92, 44/92 Simon Behr
2001 PLs3 to7/2001 Tau Mining
2002 PLs3 to7/2001 Tau Mining
2003 PLs3 to7/2001 Tau Mining
2012 PLs318/2012, 319/2012 Discovery Metals Botswana
2013 PLs318/2012, 319/2013 Discovery Metals Botswana
2014 PLs318/2012, 319/2014 Discovery Metals Botswana
2015 PLs318/2012, 319/2015 Discovery Metals Botswana
2016 PLs 310/2016, 311/2016 KKME
2017 PLs 310/2016, 311/2017 KKME
2018 PL202/2018 KKME
Plate 25. Heavily serpentinised dunite with secondarymagnetite outlining rims of former olivine grains.
Plate 25. Heavily serpentinised dunite with secondary magnetite outlining rims of former olivine grains.
Plate 30. Serpentinite cut by talcose fractures.
Plate 30. Serpentinite cut by talcose fractures.
Plate 31. Dunite replaced by talc with strong planar fabric
Plate 31. Dunite replaced by talc with strong planar fabric
Plate 34.Olivine-orthopyroxenite with fresh orthopyroxene laths next to a secondary shear.  Probable chromite grains in the orthopyroxene grain.
Plate 34.Olivine-orthopyroxenite with fresh orthopyroxene laths next to a secondary shear. Probable chromite grains in the orthopyroxene grain.
Plate 35. Layered orthopyroxenite with unaltered orthopyroxene laths.
Plate 35. Layered orthopyroxenite with unaltered orthopyroxene laths.
Plate 38. PGE-Mineralized quartz-norite showing large opaque (?chromite) segregation.
Plate 38. PGE-Mineralized quartz-norite showing large opaque (?chromite) segregation.
Plate 39. Melagranodiorite with secondary magnetite along cleavage planes in primary amphibole.
Plate 39. Melagranodiorite with secondary magnetite along cleavage planes in primary amphibole.

Anhaeusser, C.R. and Walraven, F., 1999. Episodic Granitoid Emplacement in the Western Kaapvaal Craton: evidence from the Archean Kraaipan granite-greenstone terrain, South Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 28, 289–309.

Behr, S.H., 1974. The geology of State Grants 11/72 and 12/72 (and the western parts of 13/72) in southern Botswana. Cyril Hurvitz Exploration Company (Pty) Ltd. Unpublished Report, Geological Survey of Botswana, 23pp.

Behr, S.H., 1987. The Keng Pan Ultrabasic Complex and its asbestos mineralization. Cyril Hurvitz Exploration company (Pty) Ltd. Unpublished Report, Geological Survey of Botswana.

Boocock, C., 1963. Geological Survey of Bechuanaland, Annual Report for 1962, 11–12.

Carney, J.N., Aldiss, D.T. and Lock, N.P., 1994. The geology of Botswana. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Botswana, 37, 113pp.

Cawthorn, R.G., Eales, H.V., Walraven, F., Uken, R. and Watkeys, M.K., 2008. The Bushveld Complex. In: M.R. Johnson, C.R., Anhaeusser and R.J. Thomas (Editors), The Geology of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa/Council for Geosciences, 261–282.

Cawthorn, R.G. and Walraven, F., 1998. Emplacement and Crystallization Time for the Bushveld Complex. Journal of Petrology, 39, 1669–1687.

Central Kalahari Aeromagnetic Interpretation Project, 2005a. 1:250,000 Geological map of Mabutsane (33). Botswana Geological Survey.

Central Kalahari Aeromagnetic Interpretation Project, 2005b. 1:250,000 Geological map of Kanye (34). Botswana Geological Survey.

Central Kalahari Aeromagnetic Interpretation Project, 2005c. 1:250,000 Geological map of Molopo (38). Botswana Geological Survey.

Central Kalahari Aeromagnetic Interpretation Project, 2005d. 1:250,000 Geological map of Lobatse (39). Botswana Geological Survey.

Chatupa, J.C., 1994. Review of the geology and Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation of the Molopo Farm Complex, Botswana. Unpublished Report, Geological Survey of Botswana, 6pp.

Coates, J.N.M, Davies, J., Gould, D., Hutchins, D.G., Jones, C.R., Key, R.M., Massey, N.W.D., Reeves, C.V., Stansfield, G. and Walker, I.R., 1979. The Kalatraverse One report. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Botswana, 21, 421pp.

Coetzee, H. and Kruger, F.J., 1989. The geochronology, Sr- and Pb- isotope geochemistry of the Losberg Complex, and the southern limit of Bushveld Complex magmatism. South African Journal of Geology, 92, 37–41.

Cominco Resources Botswana (Pty) Ltd., 1998. Report on Reconnaissance Permit No. 3/87. Confidential Report, Geological Survey of Botswana, 9pp.

Crockett, R.N. and Jones, M.T., 1975. Some aspects of the geology of the Waterberg System in eastern Botswana. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, 78, 1–10.

Cullen, D.J., 1958. The Geology of the Dikgomodikae Area. Geological Survey of Bechuanaland Protectorate, Records for 1956, 5–11.

De Wit, M. and Tinker, J., 2004. Crustal structures across the central Kaapvaal Craton from deep-seismic reflection data. South African Journal of Geology, 107, 185–206.

Eglington, B.M. and Armstrong, R.A., 2004. The Kaapvaal Craton and adjacent orogens, southern Africa: a geochronological database and overview of the geological development of the craton. South African Journal of Geology, 107, 13–32.

Evans-Lamswood, D.M., Butt, D.P., Jackson, R.S., Lee, D.V., Muggridge, M.G., Wheeler, R.I. and Wilton, D.H.C., 2000. Physical controls associated with the distribution of sulphides in the Voisey’s Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit, Labrador. Economic Geology, 95, 749–769.

Gabrielli, F. (2003). The Geology of the Bray area. Council for Geoscience, South Africa. ISBN 1-875061-97-5. 1:250 000, Geological Series, Explanation Sheet 2522, 42pp. Pretoria, South Africa: Council for Geoscience.

Gerrard, I., 1964. The solid geology of the area covered by the airborne magnetometry survey. Geological Survey of Botswana, unpublished Report, No. IG/23/65, 29pp.

Good, N. and De Wit, M.J., 1997. The Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: 2700 Ma of episodic deformation. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 154, 93–97.

Gould D., Rathbone, P.A. and Kimbell, G.S., 1987. The Geology of the Molopo Farms Complex, Southern Botswana. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Botswana, 23, 178pp.

Hanson, R.E., 2003. Proterozoic geochronology and tectonic evolution of southern Africa. In: M. Yoshida, B.F. Windley and S. Dasgupta (Editors), Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent assembly and break-up. Special Publication of the Geological Society, London, 206, 427–463.

Hanson, R.E., Gose, W.A., Crowley, J.L., Ramezani, J., Bowring, S.A., Bullen, D.S., Hall, R.P., Pancake, J. and Mukwakwami, J., 2004. Paleoproterozoic intraplate magmatism and basin development on the Kaapvaal Craton. Age, paleomagnetism and geochemistry of ~1.93 to ~1.87 Ga post-Waterberg dolerites. South African Journal of Geology, 107, 233–254.

Kaavera J., Rajesh H.M., Tsunogae, T., Belyanin G.A., 2018.Marginal facies and compositional equivalents of Bushveld parental sills from the Molopo Farms Complex layered intrusion, Botswana: Petrogenetic and mineralization implications. Ore Geology Reviews, 92, 506-528.

Key, R.M. and Ayres, N., 2000. The 1998 edition of the National Geological Map of Botswana. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 30, 427–451.

Key, R.M., Mapeo, R.B.M. and Corfu, F., 1996. Widespread Palaeoproterozoic magmatism and deformation in south-east Botswana. Abstract Volume, The Gravity Survey of the Molopo Farms Area, Southern Botswana, Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Botswana, 30, 101pp.

Kruger, F.J., 1989. The geochronology and Sr-isotope geochemistry of the Molopo Farms Complex, Bushveld Magmatic Province: a preliminary report. Molopo Botswana (Pty) Ltd. Final Report for Prospecting Licences, 14, 85.

Lamont, G.T., 1950. Preliminary report on the Kakia asbestos occurrence. Unpublished Report, Geological Survey of Bechuanaland Protectorate, GTL/G/50, 5pp.

Lock, N.P., 1996. Final Report on Prospecting Licences 40-49/90, Mokatse Mining (Pty) Ltd. Confidential Report, Geological Survey of Botswana.

Mallick, D.I.J., Habgood, F. and Skinner, A.C., 1981. A geological interpretation of Landsat imagery and air photography of Botswana. Institute of Geological Sciences, Overseas Geology and Mineral Resources, 56, 35pp.

Mapeo, R.B.M, Armstrong, R.A., Kampunzu, A.B. and Ramokate, L.V., 2004. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of granitoids from the Western Domain of the Kaapvaal Craton, Southeastern Botswana: implications for crustal evolution. South African Journal of Geology, 107, 159–172.

McGeorge, I.B., 1989. Molopo Botswana (Pty) Ltd, Reconnaissance Permit 4/87. Statement of Direct Costs. Confidential Report, Geological Survey of Botswana, 6pp.

McGeorge, I.B., 1991. Final Report for PL 12/87, Southern District. Confidential Report, Geological Survey of Botswana, 5pp.

McGeorge, I.B., 1992. Final Report PL 14/87, Southern District. Molopo Botswana (Pty) Ltd. Confidential Report, Geological Survey of Botswana, 6pp.

Meixner, H.M. and Peart, R.J., 1984. The Kalahari Drilling Project. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Botswana, 27, 224pp.

Mitchell, A.A., 1985. Report on the Geology of the Keng Pan, Sekoma Pan and Tubane Areas, and on the Drilling Programme at Keng Pan. Confidential Report, Geological Survey of Botswana.

Naldrett, A.J., 1999. World-class Ni-Cu-PGE deposits: key factors in their genesis. Mineralium Deposita, 34, 227–240.

Naldrett, A.J., 2007. Fifty years of progress in the understanding of magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulphide deposits. Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial SGA Meeting, Dublin, Ireland, 971–973.

Pouliquen, G., Key, R.M. and Walker, A., 2008. The internal structure and geotectonic setting of the Xade and Tsetseng complexes in the western most part of the Kaapvaal Craton. South African Journal of Geology, 111, 345–356.

Prendergast, M.D., 2012. The Molopo Farms Complex, southern Botswana–a reconsideration of structure, evolution, and the Bushveld connection. South African Journal of Geology, 115, 77–90.

Prinsloo, J., (1994). Geophysical Interpretation of the Bray 2522 Area. Council for Geoscience, South Africa. Council for Geoscience, Internal Report 1994-0076, 27pp.

Reeves, C.V., 1973. A gravity determined density value for Kalahari sediments at Jwaneng. Geological Survey of Botswana, Report CVR/11/73 (unpublished), 2pp.

Reeves, C.V., 1978. The reconnaissance aeromagnetic survey of Botswana: 1975–1977. Final interpretation report. Terra Surveys Ltd. (Canadian International Development Agency), Geological Survey of Botswana, 315pp.

Reeves, C.V. and Hutchins, D.G., 1976. The National Gravity Survey of Botswana: 1972–1973. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Botswana, 5, 44pp.

Reichhardt, F. J., 1992. Relinquishment Report for Prospecting Licence 1/84 (Bray). Gold Fields (Botswana) (Pty) Ltd. Confidential Report, Geological Survey of Botswana.

Reichhardt, F.J., 1994. The Molopo Farms Complex, Botswana: History, Stratigraphy, Petrography, Petrochemistry and Ni-Cu-PGE Mineralization. Exploration Mining Geology, 3, 263–284.

Reunion Mining Botswana (Pty) Ltd., 1998. Prospecting License 57/96. Phitshane Molopo, Southern Botswana. Report for the 1st quarter, third year 1st June 1998-31 August 1998. Confidential Report, Geological Survey of Botswana, 12pp.

Sharrock, J.M., 1992. Relinquishment Report for Prospecting Licenses 37/88 and 38/88. Tinto Botswana Exploration (Pty) Ltd. Confidential Report, Geological Survey of Botswana, 5pp.

Silver, P.G., Fouch, M.J., Gao, S.S., Schmitz, M. and Kaapvaal Seismic Group, 2004. Seismic anisotropy, mantle fabric, and the magmatic evolution of Precambrian southern Africa. South African Journal of Geology, 107, 45–58.

Singletary, S.J., Hanson, R.E., Martin, M.W., Crowley, J.L. Bowring, S.A., Key, R.M., Ramokate, L.V., Direng, B.B. and Krol, M.A., 2003. Geochronology of Basement Rocks in the Kalahari Desert, Botswana, and implications for Regional Proterozoic tectonics. Precambrian Research, 121, 47–71.

Smit, P.J. and Maree, B.D., 1966. Densities of South African rocks for the interpretation of gravity anomalies. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of South Africa, 48, 37pp.

Tanner, D., McDonald, I., Harmer, R.E., Hughes, H.S., 2017. Sulphide melt evolution in the Volspruit project: the most primitive, yet most contaminated platinum-group element (PGE) deposit in the bushveld complex? Appl. Earth Sci 1-1.

Tinker, J., De Wit, M. and Grotzinger, J., 2002. Seismic Stratigraphic Constraints on Neoarchean - Paleoproterozoic Evolution of the Western Margin of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, 105, 107–134.

Tombale, A.R., 1986. 1:125,000 Geological Map of the Jwaneng area. Geological Survey of Botswana.

Van Breemen, O. and Dodson, M.H., 1972. Metamorphic chronology of the Limpopo Belt, Southern Africa. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 83, 2005–2018.

Von Gruenewaldt, G., Sharpe M.R. and Hatton C.J., 1985. The Bushveld Complex: Introduction and Review. Economic Geology, 80, 803–812.

Von Gruenewaldt, G., Behr, S.H., Wilhelm, H.J., 1989. Some Preliminary Petrological Investigations of the Molopo Farms Complex, Botswana, and Its Ni-Cu Sulphide Mineralization. Magmatic Sulfides-the Zimbabwe Volume. The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London pp. 95–105.

Walker, A.S.D., Key, R.M., Pouliquen, G., Gunn, G., Sharrock, J., McGeorge, I., Farr, J., 2010. Geophysical modelling of the Molopo Farms Complex in southern Botswana; implications for its emplacement within the ∼2 Ga large igneous provinces of southern and central Africa. S. Afr. J. Geol. 113 (4), 381–400.

Wayland, E.J., 1951. Asbestos in the Bechuanaland Protectorate. Unpublished Report, Geological Survey of Bechuanaland Protectorate, EJW/14, 4pp.

Wellfield Consulting Services (Pty) Ltd., 2004. Interpretation of Aeromagnetic Data of Central Kalahari Project. Final Report, February - 2006. Geological Survey of Botswana, 68pp.

News